6.SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES OF MUSANG KING DURIAN.

SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES OF MUSANG KING DURIAN.

After planting especially during dry season the trees have to be sprayed with water so that the trees grow well. The water should not be hot due to exposed to sun light. The amount of the water depend on root zone area, volume of roots zone, the capacity of the soil to hold water and the type of soil itself.

The plants are pruned to make them strong trees structure that grow bigger, faster and stronger so that a good horticulture practiced can be carried out in order to get more and better quality of fruits and the trees are healthy and they can withstand diseases and insects attacked.

There are two ways of pruning and thinning of the Musang King Durian.They are Central Leader System and Open Centre Pruning System.

CETRAL LEADER SYSTEM.

In this system, the trees to have one central vertical trunk and horizontal branches growing at the vertical trunk to form a strong tree structure in order to obtain maximum fruits. Some vertical branches are also growing upward at the vertical trunk and compete with the vertical trunk besides shoots that are continuously growing rather than seasonal and they must be removed. In its natural state, ground trees can grow to 45 meters (150 feet) and the first branch can be 18 meters (60 feet) from the ground. Matured trees normally are buttressed and their trunk usually have a diameter of 56 cm to 100 cm (17 inches to 30 inches).Their branches were pruned to form a regular formation of a cone or semi circular shape and the branches are uniformly distributed around the main trunk. Without the proper pruning, the branches will be irregular.

The purpose of pruning is to get free circulation of air and enough sun light required for fruits buds to turn properly into fruits. The flowers are formed along big horizontal branches that can carry the weight of matured fruits. Whereas the vertical branches is to determine the size and height of the trees. Thus pruning will produce good quality of fruits but over pruning can delay fruiting from 1 to 2 years.

The vertical trunk is topped or cut off to control the height of the trees and branch spread so that spraying, hand pollination of flowers, fruits thinning and harvesting can be carried out easily.

Dead, diseased or weak branches must be removed to stop from spreading. Water shoots must be removed especially after fruits season.

The pruning or training should be carried out regularly and started from young to matured trees. The method is either Central Leader or Open Centre. Normally the Central Leader is used but in Thailand Open Centre is used as it produced more fruits where hand pollination,fruits thinning and harvesting can be carried out.

Low-Head Training System (LHTS)

In !990 Malaysian Agricultural Research And Developement Institute (MARDI) introduced Low Head Training System (LHTS) replacing the traditional High Headed Training System where the trees are taller and the fruits are at the upper branches of the trees.

In the LHTS the branches are only 75 to 100 cm from the ground whereas in the High Headed system, the lowest branches are more than1 meter from the ground. In the LHTS the trees have less apical dominance (suppression of the development of lateral bud in growing plant shoot caused by hormones produced in the tip of the shoot) of the central leader and control the height of the tree.Therefore, the trees required less pruning and start bearing fruits 1 year earlier and the fruits are double.

Training And Pruning For LHTS.

Training is done right from the beginning of the planting to year of 5 or 6 and it is very important. It involved the selection of the scaffold or the fruiting branches which will determine the fruits that will be produced.

First Year:

In the first year make sure that the trees are growing upright. If it does not, an upright support has to be made by tying the main stem onto it in such a way that the tree will be growing upright.

 

 

Second Year.

The second year is the time for developing the frameworks of the trees. The main stem growing upright is usually chosen as Central Leader. If there is no main stem, the most strongest branch growing upright is chosen. Then choose 5 to 8 branches that grow with wide angles to the stem from 45 to 90 degrees and their growth are evenly distributed around the stem with their distances at least 15 cm apart with the lowest branch 75 cm from the ground. The scaffold branches are then cut 15 to 30 cm shorter than the leader. Additional training also to be done during the growth of the trees such as removing undesirable shoots and developing scaffold limbs so that they grow at wide angle with the trunk by pulling them down with strings.(Scaffold branches are primary limbs that form a tree’s canopy. Secondary branches that emerged from scaffold branches are lateral branches. Growth come from buds at the tips of branches (terminal buds),or along branches sides (lateral buds)

The spreading of 1 year limbs to go on until all the scaffold have already spread to the required angle.

Third Year:

The third year is pruning the central leader. Make certain that the central leader is healthy and growing upright. If it does not grow upright, tie it to a stick so that it will grow upright.

 

Topping the leader: 1 – First cut; 2 – Second cut

At a height of 1.5 meters of the central leader choose the most healthy outward growing branch and cut the central leader or topping above this branch and make this branch as a new central leader. This topping will make more primary branches to grow and choose 2 or 3 primary branches growing from that leader for more scaffold branches.Prune these branches 15 to 30 cm shorter than the central leader.

Secondary shoots will grow at scaffold branches developed in previous year. Keep 2 to 4 of these new shoots that are 15 cm or more away from the stem leader as secondary branches.Prune these branches 15 to 30 cm shorter than the central leader. and prune the branches to form a cone.

Fourth Year:

Open up the center of the canopy.

In the fourth year, the formation of the primary and secondary scaffold branches are to continue besides opening up the center of the canopy by pruning or thinning secondary branches within in order to have more ventilation and more sunlight to penetrate onto fruiting branches.

To have a well-balanced, stable and strong trees structures, the primary branches should not be allowed to grow more than 30% of the main trunk and compete with the main trunk.” Bench cut” method is used to control the primary branches growth and make the canopy more open. It is done by pruning or thinning one third the length of the primary branches of the undesirable oblique branches or branches that form narrow “crotches”.

OPEN CENTER PRUNING SYSTEM.

First Year:

In the first year of planting, the main stem or central leader is pruned to 20 to 30 cm above the grafted union, then allow 3 to 4 tier. The selected to grow and made into fruiting branches in the first tier. The selected branches are those with wide angle with the main stem and growing evenly around the main stem, 10 to 15 cm apart with the lowest scaffold 40 to 60 cm from the ground.These branches are then pruned to about 20 t0 25 cm in the second tier.

First year

Second and Later Year to Bearing:

In the second year, the selected scaffold branches in the first tier were selected and made into scaffold branches in the second tier fruiting branches. These branches were pruned to equal length so that their growth will be uniform.Other shoots or branches were removed.The plants produced finally will form as an umbrella or an inverted pyramid.The plants are maintained at height of 3 to 4 meters with 2 to 3 meters in diameter and supporting main trunk of 70 to 100 cm. Any new shoots growing above 3 to 4 meters are cut down to reduce the apical dominance in the upper portion of the canopy and it forces the trees to redirect their growth to the lower portion of scaffold or fruiting branches. As a result, the trees will start bearing fruits in 4 to 5 years.


. Second Year And Later.

YIELD.

As reported by the Edge Newspaper on April 11,2018,announced by the Minister Of Agriculture And Agrobased Industries, matured Musang King Durian can produce fruits between 10 to 15 tons per hectare compare to oil palm of 30 tons per hectare per year but giving income of RM155,250.00 compare to oil palm at RM 17,500 per year.(8.8 times more).It is because Musang King Durian has big demand in China, a very big country and it has a very big population.Therefore, planting Musang King Durian is more profitable than oil palm. Why not plant them now!!!

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Mist Spraying Of Trees.
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  • It also can be used for weeding.
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HOW TO INDUCE DURIAN TO FLOWER.

To induce flower to Durian trees is by the application of paclobutrazol.

Normally durian required 10 to 14 days of continuous dry weather to  start flowering  but with the application of the paclobutrazol  it only required 3 to 7 days of continuous dry weather to start flowering

Leaf flushing is the production of a flush of new leaves typically produced
simultaneously on all branches of a bare plant or trees. Studies show that insect herbivory plays a major role in moulding leaf flushing phenology in trees of the seasonal tropics.
Image result for meaning of leaf flushing
After harvest, selected trees were pruned to stimulate leaf flushing. Paclobutrazol, at the rates of 0, 750, 1000 and 1500 ppm, was sprayed to the trees when the new flushing has fully developed.Flowering in the treated trees occurred in 3 to 7 days of dry weather compare to 10 to 14 days for untreated trees. Flowering response to paclobutrazol is more readily in higher rates.  When compared with the untreated control trees, the number of flowers per tree in the trees treated with paclobutrazol was increased by 29 to 4%.Results of the experiment indicated that a successful induction of flowering using paclobutrazol involved the degree of vegetative growth suppression, concentration and time of chemical application and an interruption of continuous dry period.
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Detail produk dari Pupuk Pemacu Buah Durian diluar Musim Paclobutrazol

  • Kami Sediakan Pupuk Nutrisi Paclo Plus
  • Khusus untuk pembuahan & Pembungaan diluar Musim
  • Cocok untuk segala tanaman Buah
  • Durian, Mangga, Jambu, Sawo, Jeruk Dll..
  • Spesifikasi :
  • 1. Kemasan : 50 ml
  • 2. Aplikasi : 1 tutup botol untuk 5 Liter air,
  • disemprotkan ke daun & disiramkan ke Akar
  • 3. Waktu Aplikasi : 2 Minggu sekali, Ulangi sampai 4 kali Aplikasi
  • 4. Mengandung Mikroba PGPR untuk mempercepat penyerapan nutrisi melalui Perakaran
  • 5. Paclobutrazol Plus 50%, Membuat Tanaman berbuah di luar Musim.

Spesifikasi dari Pupuk Pemacu Buah Durian diluar Musim Paclobutrazol

  • Merek: No Brand
  • SKU: 593178846_ID-837516220
  • Model: Pupuk Pemacu Buah Durian diluar Musim Paclobutrazol
  • Jenis Garansi: Tidak Ada Garansi

Apa yang ada di dalam kotak

1 x Pupuk Pemacu Buah Durian diluar Musim Paclobutrazol

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